History of Educational Technology
There is no written evidence which can tell us who has coined the phrase educational Technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time time periods have put sent different updates of Educational Technology. Educational Technology is a all-round and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where Technology from different fields of science is borrowed depending on the necessity and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing methods of those problems involved in all areas of human learning.
Educational Technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five development.
The first stage of educational Technology is coupled with the use of aids like chart, maps, symbols, models, individuals and concrete materials. The term educational Technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational Technology is associated with the 'electronic revolution' with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational Technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of educational materials.
The third stage of educational Technology is linked with the development of advertising which will led to 'communication revolution' for educational purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational Technology is real by the customized process of instruction. The innovation of hard-wired learning and hard-wired instruction provided a new dimension to educational Technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest notion of educational Technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, hard-wired instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational Technology is a characteristic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the whole process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.
Educational Technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational Technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be followed back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; which is the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by do away with pebbles, manufacture of various handmade weapon and products from pebbles and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship Technology to migrate collected from one of destination to another across the Marine, by which they developed their first informal education of information about the marine currents, climatic conditions, wind-surfing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), for lawn practice, rubbed stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining Technology. The rubbed axes were so effective that despite if appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of plants farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to lawn settlement. Ancient tools conserved in a variety of museums, give work like Altamira Give in The world, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, This particular language etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.
Neolithic Innovation of Stone Age come into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the usage of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with office assistant and later bronze, an alloy of jar and office assistant, being the materials of their choice.
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The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting Technology to less the cost of living since iron products were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.
Educational Technology over Ancient people
According to Robert Saettler, 2004, Educational Technology can be followed back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and broadcast information. In every stage of human world, one can find an educational technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture who were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the Technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.
The greatest advances in Technology and engineering was included with the rise of the ancient people. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to take in new ways of living and governance.
The Indus Valley World was beginning Bronze Age world which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The world was primarily flourished around the Indus River pot of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today's Pakistan and the western states of modern-day Of india as well as some area of the world extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).
There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people speech. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic software. The software appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their software with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was entirely on seals and sealings who were probably used in trade and official & management work.
Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. We were holding the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et 's. in '09, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script's pattern is closer to that of been vocal words, which supported the offered speculation that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese World, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological alarms, lavatory paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed soccer drills speed, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, propane as fuel, the permanent magnet compass, the raised-relief map, the crank furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and handgun dust. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational Technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.
Ancient Egypt language was at one point one of the best living through and used languages in the world. Their software was composed of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was composed of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone typical monuments or tombs who were discovered and rescued latter on increases the proof existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational Technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper work was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of rotating wheel increased the productivity of twine making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the rotating wheel with increasing cause of towels, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime consider the development of printing Technology.
The innovation of the printing press was happened in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The innovation of printing press was a prime developmental consider the of educational Technology to convey the instruction depending on the necessity of the complex and advanced- Technology cultured society.
In the pre-industrial levels, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the educational processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational Technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like chart and pictures.
The year 1873 may certainly be a landmark in the early history of Technology of education or audio-visual education. An convention happened in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the convention of maps, chart, textbooks and other equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child mentor and the founder of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic have an effect on educational Technology through her development of graded materials designed to give the proper sequencing of material for each individual learner. Modern educational Technology suggests many proxy of Montessori's idea of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage's design of a general purpose calculating device laid the walls of the modern computer and in 1943, the first calculating machine depending on hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Helped instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a guitar tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was created by A. T. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, universities and colleges.
In the beginning of the 19th century, there were popular changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), from the comfort of its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In north america, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in Great britain were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Arkansas state university developed a self-teaching machine called 'Drum Tutor' in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article 'Science of Learning and art of Teaching' published in 1945 pleaded for the employment of the knowledge derived from behaviour psychology to in-class procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.
Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television programs in Berlin, Open rounds television began to be applied primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in The united kingdomt, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial innovation in america and Italy, other countries also started moving on in the filed of educational Technology. In this way, the beginning of educational Technology occurred in 1960 from America and Italy and now it has reached The united kingdomt, Europe and Of india.
Might be around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep deficiency of teachers in america and therefore an urgent need of educational Technology was felt. Medical professional. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Medical professional. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production Technology in america.
Team teaching had its origin in america in the mid of 1950's and was started in the year 1955 at Harvard University began offering rebates internship plan.
In the year 1956, Benjamin Flower from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, "The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Manual I: Cognitive Domain".
In 1961, Very fine teaching technique was followed by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.
Electronic devices is the main Technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all quite offices and educational places and even in accordance places in developed countries with the main advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.
Today's in-class is more likely to be a Technology lab, a space with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi empowered laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual in-class or may have been listening to a podcast or having a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. These days students as well teachers are attending seminars, seminars, workshops at national and international level along with multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened assets number of doors of opportunities for today's learner to make their life happier than any other time.